Eric G. Suder, et al. v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue

Court hammer

October 1, 2014 | Vasquez, United States Tax Court Judge | Docket No. 14435-09, 14460-09, 6183-10, 6210-10

Table of Contents

Short Summary

In the tax court case Eric G. Suder, et al. v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, the court ruled on several issues related to the claim of research tax credits by Estech Systems, Inc. (ESI), a company engaged in the development of innovative telephone systems. The primary question was whether the activities conducted by ESI qualified as research under Section 41 of the Internal Revenue Code, which pertains to the tax credit for increasing research activities.

Key Issues

  1. Qualified Research Activities: The court needed to determine whether the research activities conducted by ESI met the requirements of qualified research under IRC Section 41(d), which includes passing the four-part test: permitted expenses under Section 174, seeking technological information, pursuing a business component’s new or improved function, and involving a process of experimentation.
  2. Substantiation of Qualified Research Expenses (QREs): ESI was required to prove that the expenses claimed as part of the research tax credits were substantiated and directly linked to qualified research activities.
  3. Reasonableness of Wages: Another significant issue was whether the wages paid to Eric Suder, the CEO, were reasonable under IRC Section 174(e) considering the research activities and his role in the company.


The court held that:

  • Eleven of the twelve projects evaluated did indeed qualify as research under Section 41(d), thereby allowing most of the research credits claimed.
  • ESI adequately substantiated the QREs associated with the qualified research activities.
  • The wages paid to Suder were partly unreasonable. The court recalculated reasonable wages based on comparable compensation data and determined what portion of Suder’s wages could be counted as qualified research expenses.
  • ESI and its petitioners were not liable for accuracy-related penalties because their errors were based on a reasonable cause and they acted in good faith.

Arguments Made

  1. Qualification of Activities as R&D:
  • IRS Argument: The IRS questioned whether the activities undertaken by ESI satisfied the necessary tests for qualified research, particularly focusing on the “process of experimentation” and the “technological in nature” requirements.
  • ESI Counterargument: ESI countered the IRS’s challenge by presenting evidence that their activities did satisfy the “process of experimentation” test, emphasizing that substantial activities involved systematic trial and error, modeling, or simulation necessary to eliminate technological uncertainty.

ESI also argued that the activities were technological in nature as they fundamentally relied on principles of the physical or biological sciences, engineering, or computer science.

  • Court Decision: The court sided with ESI, finding that eleven of the twelve projects satisfied the four-part test for qualified research under Section 41(d).
  1. Substantiation of Qualified Research Expenses (QREs):
  • IRS Argument: The IRS contended that ESI failed to adequately substantiate the QREs claimed, lacking sufficient evidence to show a direct nexus between the expenses claimed and the qualified research activities.
  • ESI Counterargument: ESI presented detailed records and testimony to demonstrate that expenses claimed were directly linked to qualified research activities. They argued that they maintained adequate documentation such as project lists, expense records, and detailed descriptions of research activities that substantiated the claimed expenses.
  • Court Decision: The court sided with ESI, concluding they had adequately substantiated the QREs through detailed documentation.
  1. Reasonableness of Wages:
  • IRS Argument: The IRS argued that the compensation paid to Mr. Suder was not reasonable under the circumstances, particularly given his part-time engagement.
  • ESI Counterargument: ESI defended the wages paid to Mr. Suder by highlighting his crucial role and contributions to the company’s innovation and success, portraying him as a critical driver of their R&D efforts despite his part-time status.
  • They argued that his compensation was aligned with industry standards for CEOs with similar responsibilities in similar industries and companies, asserting that his wages were commensurate with his role and contributions.
  • Court Decision: The court sided partially with the IRS, finding Mr. Suder’s wages unreasonable in part and recalculating the reasonable compensation based on expert testimonies.
  1. Calculation of the Research Tax Credit:
  • IRS Argument: The IRS challenged the methodology and accuracy of the computation of the research tax credit.
  • ESI Counterargument: ESI argued that their calculation of the research tax credit was accurate and complied with the tax code. They maintained that they consistently applied the same methodology in computing QREs as had been used in previous years, validated by a third-party consultant in prior R&D studies.
  • Court Decision: The court sided with ESI, indicating the research tax credit was appropriately calculated.
  1. Imposition of Accuracy-Related Penalties:
  • IRS Argument: The IRS argued that ESI was liable for accuracy-related penalties due to negligence or substantial understatement of income tax.
  • ESI Counterargument: ESI claimed that they acted with reasonable cause and good faith in their tax credit claims. They stressed that they relied on professional advice from competent third-party consultants who conducted detailed R&D studies, which formed the basis for their tax credit computations and substantiations.

They also argued that the complexity of the tax law regarding the R&D credit justified their reliance on professional advice and mitigated any claims of negligence or disregard of rules.

  • Court Decision: The court found ESI not liable for accuracy-related penalties, recognizing their reliance on professional advice due to the complex nature of the R&D tax credit provisions.
  1. Lack of Qualified Purpose in Certain Projects (Chameleon project):
  • IRS Argument: The IRS argued that the Chameleon project did not meet the qualified purpose requirement as it was undertaken for style and cosmetic purposes.
  • ESI Counterargument: ESI argued that even though the Chameleon project involved style changes, it also included substantial technical efforts to incorporate third-party software into their systems, which involved overcoming significant technical challenges and uncertainties.
  • Court Decision: The court agreed with the IRS, finding that the Chameleon project did not meet the qualified purpose requirement.
  1. Failure to Meet All Four Tests for Qualified Research:
  • IRS Argument: The IRS maintained that not all projects met the four necessary tests to qualify as research under Section 41.
  • ESI Counterargument: ESI maintained that all projects, including those questioned by the IRS, met the four-part test for qualified research. They provided extensive evidence to show that each project involved experimentation to overcome technological uncertainties aimed at developing new or improved business components.
  • Court Decision: The court found that 11 projects met all four tests, but the Chameleon project did not satisfy the requirements for qualified research.

Key Takeaways For Taxpayers

This tax court case involving ESI’s claim for research and development (R&D) tax credits provides several key takeaways that are applicable to taxpayers, especially those involved in claiming R&D credits under IRC Section 41. Here are the primary lessons and guidelines based on the court’s decisions:

  1. Detailed Documentation and Substantiation:
  • Key Takeaway: Taxpayers must maintain detailed and precise documentation to substantiate their R&D expenses. This includes project lists, expense records, and detailed descriptions of research activities. The court’s decision to side with ESI on this point underscores the importance of keeping organized and comprehensive records that directly link expenses to specific qualified research activities.
  1. Adherence to Qualification Criteria for R&D:
  • Key Takeaway: Activities claimed as qualified R&D must meet specific criteria, including being technological in nature and involving a process of experimentation aimed at resolving technological uncertainties. Taxpayers should ensure that their R&D activities align closely with these criteria and prepare to demonstrate how their activities meet each element of the four-part test.
  1. Reasonableness of Compensation:
  • Key Takeaway: Compensation included in QREs, particularly for high-level employees such as CEOs, must be reasonable under the circumstances. This includes considering the individual’s role, the company’s size, and the industry standards. Taxpayers should benchmark compensation against similar roles in similar industries to determine what is reasonable and defendable.
  1. Professional and Expert Advice:
  • Key Takeaway: Reliance on qualified professional or expert advice can be a crucial factor in defending R&D credit claims, especially given the complexity of tax laws governing these credits. Taxpayers should engage with reputable advisors or consultants who specialize in R&D tax credits and ensure that these professionals are thoroughly involved in the process.
  1. Handling of Penalties:
  • Key Takeaway: To avoid accuracy-related penalties, taxpayers must demonstrate that they acted with reasonable cause and in good faith. This includes making a serious effort to ascertain the correctness of the tax credit claim, such as engaging experts, following professional advice, and conducting rigorous internal reviews.
  1. Importance of Technical and Economic Risk:
  • Key Takeaway: Projects should involve genuine technical and economic risks to qualify as R&D. Taxpayers need to clearly delineate the uncertainties they aim to resolve and the efforts undertaken to overcome these uncertainties through experimentation.
  1. Qualified Purpose Requirement:
  • Key Takeaway: Projects must have a qualified purpose, meaning they should aim for an improvement in function, performance, reliability, or quality. Projects aimed at aesthetic or cosmetic modifications (like the Chameleon project in this case) do not generally qualify unless they involve technological innovations.
  1. Credible and Consistent Testimony:
  • Key Takeaway: Credible and consistent testimony from involved personnel can significantly support a taxpayer’s case in court. It’s essential that key personnel are familiar with the specifics of the projects and can competently discuss the scientific and technological aspects of the R&D efforts.

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