Fairchild Industries Incorporated v. United States, No. 94-5116

Court hammer

November 29, 1995 | Before RICH, NEWMAN, and SCHALL, Circuit Judges | Docket No.

Short Summary

In the case of Fairchild Industries Incorporated v. United States, Fairchild Industries, Inc., a company engaged in the aerospace industry, appealed a decision by the United States Court of Federal Claims regarding the denial of research tax credits. The credits were questioned based on whether the research costs incurred under a fixed-price incentive contract with the Air Force were “funded” by the government. This contract involved the development and production of the T-46A aircraft, a next-generation trainer for new pilots. The core issue was whether the payments Fairchild received from the Air Force for this research were contingent on the success of the research, thus affecting their eligibility for research tax credits under section 44F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

Key Issues

The primary issue in this case was the interpretation of what constitutes “funded” research under section 44F(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulation § 1.41-5(d)(1). The dispute focused on whether Fairchild’s right to payment for its research was contingent upon the success of that research, which would affect their eligibility to claim research tax credits. The government argued that the contractual agreement should not classify the research as funded, thus disqualifying Fairchild from claiming the tax credits, because they received payment for the research.


The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed the lower court’s decision, ruling in favor of Fairchild. The court found that Fairchild’s contract with the Air Force indeed made payments contingent on the success of the research. Consequently, Fairchild was entitled to claim the research tax credits, as the expenditures were not “funded” by the government in the legal sense used in the tax code and regulations. The case was remanded to the Court of Federal Claims to determine the exact amount of Fairchild’s qualified research expenses eligible for the credit.

Specific Issues

  1. Interpretation of “Funded” Research:
    • Ruling: The appeals court ruled that Fairchild’s research was not “funded” by the Air Force in the context of the tax statute.
    • Reasoning: The court focused on the specific terms of the contract that stipulated payments were contingent on the successful completion of specific research deliverables. The definition of “funded” within the tax regulations implies that funding does not occur if payments depend on the success of the research, thus maintaining Fairchild’s eligibility for the tax credit.
  2. Contingency of Payments:
    • Ruling: The court found that the payments were indeed contingent on the success of the research.
    • Reasoning: The appeals court highlighted that the contract specified payment was contingent upon the Air Force’s acceptance of the research outputs. This contingent nature affirmed that Fairchild bore the risk of research failure, which is a key condition for research to be considered unfunded according to tax credit rules.
  3. Financial Risk and Responsibility:
    • Ruling: The court determined that Fairchild retained substantial financial risk throughout the research process.
    • Reasoning: By analyzing the contract, the court concluded that Fairchild was responsible for all costs until each specific milestone was successfully met and accepted. If the research failed to meet the Air Force’s standards, Fairchild would not only lose the progress payments but would also bear the costs incurred, clearly indicating substantial financial risk on Fairchild’s part.
  4. Contractual Interpretations Relating to Payment Obligations:
    • Ruling: The court ruled that the contractual terms did indeed make Fairchild’s payments contingent on successful research.
    • Reasoning: The court noted that despite Fairchild’s receipt of progress payments, these payments were essentially advances against successful completion of contract line items. Such terms align with the regulations dictating that payments must not be assured to be considered unfunded.
  5. Implications of Progress Payments:
    • Ruling: The appeals court found that progress payments did not constitute non-contingent funding.
    • Reasoning: Progress payments were viewed as conditional advances that needed to be repaid unless the research milestones were met. This setup ensured that Fairchild continued to carry the financial risk of the research, qualifying the research expenses as unfunded for the purposes of claiming tax credits.
  6. Allocation of Tax Credits in Contractual Relationships:
    • Ruling: The court established that the tax credit should be allocated to Fairchild, the party bearing the risk.
    • Reasoning: By interpreting the regulations, the court underscored that the eligibility for tax credits depends on which party bears the financial risk of failure. Since Fairchild bore this risk, it was entitled to the tax credits.
  7. Legal Interpretation of Treasury Regulations:
    • Ruling: The appeals court concluded that the lower court misinterpreted Treasury Regulation § 1.41-5(d)(1).
    • Reasoning: The appeals court clarified that the regulation’s intention is to exclude from funding those research expenses where payment is not guaranteed but contingent on successful outcomes. The lower court’s broader interpretation was deemed inconsistent with both the statutory intent and regulatory frameworks.
  8. Effect of Contractual Risk on Research Expenses:
    • Ruling: The court ruled that Fairchild did indeed incur the research expenses itself, not the government.
    • Reasoning: Despite the advance payments, Fairchild’s responsibility to refund these in the event of unsuccessful research clearly placed the economic burden of failure on Fairchild. This adherence to the original risk allocation in the contract confirmed that the research costs were not funded by the government.

Key Takeaways for Taxpayers

  1. Contingency of Payment is Crucial:
  • Insight: The eligibility for R&D tax credits heavily depends on whether the payments for research are contingent upon the success of the research. This case underscores the importance of the contractual terms that specifically tie payments to the successful outcome of the research projects.
  • Action: Taxpayers and contract drafters should carefully structure agreements to clearly define that payments are dependent on the successful achievement of specific research outcomes.
  1. Definition of “Funded” Under Tax Law:
  • Insight: The definition of “funded” as interpreted by tax regulations implies that research is not considered funded if there is a substantial risk that the payment might not occur unless the research is successful. This differentiates simple receipt of payments from being truly “funded.”
  • Action: It is crucial for companies engaging in R&D to consult with tax experts to ensure that the language in their contracts aligns with the legal definitions and criteria established by tax law for claiming credits.
  1. Financial Risk Assumption:
  • Insight: The party that bears the financial risk if the research fails plays a critical role in determining the eligibility for R&D tax credits. The appeals court highlighted that Fairchild bore the financial risk despite receiving progress payments, which were more like advances to be reconciled later.
  • Action: R&D firms should document their risk exposures and the terms of their financial agreements to support their claims for tax credits. This includes detailing how and when funds are to be repaid if research outputs do not meet the contractual criteria.
  1. Contractual Clarity on Payments:
  • Insight: Clear contractual provisions regarding payment terms related to the success of the research are essential. This clarity can influence tax credit eligibility by defining the nature of the payment obligations.
  • Action: When drafting contracts, clarity and explicit terms regarding the contingency of payments and the success of the research should be prioritized. This can help in avoiding misunderstandings and strengthening the case for R&D tax credit claims.

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